John and Tammi Spruill Recognized with Bright Lights Award

The Board of Directors of Nightlight Christian Adoptions established the “Bright Lights Award” which is given in recognition of a commitment to adoption which inspires others to adopt, advocates for adoption, or makes a great sacrifice in adoption. “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 5:16).

The board would like to recognize John and Tammi Spruill.

John and Tammi founded the “Save the Embryos” adoption grant for Snowflakes families in financial need.  they have also donated generously toward embryo adoption awareness efforts. Thank you for your generosity and vision!

 

 

Rebekah Booth Honored with Bright Lights Award

The Board of Directors of Nightlight Christian Adoptions established the “Bright Lights Award” which is given in recognition of a commitment to adoption which inspires others to adopt, advocates for adoption, or makes a great sacrifice in adoption. “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 5:16).

The first quarter of 2023 recipient of the Bright Lights award is Rebekah Booth.

Rebekah felt called to cover the fees for a Christian couple in financial need adopting from Eastern Europe. Even though she did not know the family, she gave generously to them.  We are deeply grateful for your generosity.

 

 

Levi and Katie Moore

The Board of Directors of Nightlight Christian Adoptions established the “Bright Lights Award” which is given in recognition of a commitment to adoption which inspires others to adopt, advocates for adoption, or makes a great sacrifice in adoption. “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 5:16).

The third quarter of 2022 recipients of the Bright Lights award are Levi and Katie Moore.

Levi and Katie have given generously to the Nightlight adoption grant fund, which helps “people who might not otherwise be able to adopt, adopt children who might not otherwise be adopted.”

 

 

Ann Herring Honored with Bright Lights Award

The Board of Directors of Nightlight Christian Adoptions established the “Bright Lights Award” which is given in recognition of a commitment to adoption which inspires others to adopt, advocates for adoption, or makes a great sacrifice in adoption. “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 5:16).

The first quarter of 2023 recipient of the Bright Lights award is Ann Herring.

Ann Herring made the largest single donation in Nightlight’s history.  We are deeply grateful for your generosity.

 

 

Adoption: Layers of Motherhood

 

This article was originally published on “On the Word” at https://ancamartin.com/

He was abandoned at the gate of the orphanage. It couldn’t have been in plain daylight. The dusk in the air was most likely the rough projection of the dark and light battles on her inside. Battles of love and shame, fear and guilt hurried her hands like the wind hurries the moon away. They had to do it quickly, silently, and carefully. To abandon your helpless, small, newborn kin is illegal and punishable with prison and loss of public reputation.

She was a mother whose soft arms and cajoling eyes struggled to tell her heart to let him go. But let him go she must! He wasn’t what they hoped for in a son. He wasn’t fitting their paradigm and life trajectories. And so, he must go. Away from her kin. Away from her sight and presence. Deep into a place where street eyes don’t go and neighborhood bodies rarely walk. A place that boards orphans and no one knows their real name. A place where silent cries make no real commotion and small breaths warm no one’s cheeks anymore.

I think I know his mother. Or at least some of her. I know she was scared. Scared of her own soul reminding her with every birthday of the small, little boy with missing fingers and an extra toe. Ashamed of her mind’s million reasons why he was not good enough, strong enough, perfect enough, deserving enough of life with her. Broken at the future that will always have his shadow but never his voice. Pained at the ruthless circumstances that ruled her out, killed her hope, darkened her predictions, poisoned her love for him. Weak in the face of pressuring mobs and heartless laws.

And yet, she was courageous enough to slip her baby by death’s knives and sail him down her own river of cemented state orphanage. It wasn’t a Mosaic casket she laid her boy in, but a 2.5 square meters Asian box, built by a civilized society at the gates of a stern, cold world. She was determined to pass him well from her warm, tired bosom to the government’s stiff premises. Compassionate to let her feelings tie him tight in a blanket, with a red note, and the smell of a home on his skin. And hopeful. She must have silently hoped that humanity will not completely abandon him and that a family will gather him into arms of love and compassion. Hopeful that her inner cries would comfort his. Hopeful that his breath would warm someone else’s cheeks.

Motherhood doesn’t stop when the baby leaves our arms or wombs. Once a mother, always a mother. We can hide our eyes or stiffen our hearts: but the baby’s ties tangle us forever. That’s perhaps how I know that, though she abandoned him then, she won’t stop thinking of him today. She took him away from her breath, but his smell still warms her check—reminiscent breezes of her baby’s lips. She separated him from her family but he is still connected to her memories.

Today, this boy is in our family. Adoption is the other way of birthing a child—the undoing of abandonment, the pulling in of the outcast, the family-ing of the parentless, the gathering of the rejected, the loving of the love-less, the connecting with the disconnected. Adoption restores what abandonment rejected. It enriches what rejection depleted. It loves what pain broke down.

My motherhood sees her motherhood. I look at my boy and I see a fleeting shadow of her in him. She remains close to him if only in her dreams. My boy is dressed in layered motherhood and he doesn’t even know it.

I know my motherhood is richer and fuller because she chose to mother him first. I benefit from her hard choice to let her son live. I gained what she lost. I love what she rejected. I mother what she abandoned. I live with the one she parted with. I get to hold his little frame and hear his beautiful giggles. His lips kiss my cheeks and his words whisper sweet loves to me. I hold his hands with missing fingers and see God’s wonderful creation. I am grateful to his first mother who chose life for him in the dusk of an Asian street, at the gate of a cold orphanage, in the struggles of her conflicted, broken heart.

Written by Anca Martin, adoptive mother

Am I Pregnant ?

Am I Pregnant? 12 Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms to Look For

Have you been experiencing bodily changes? Do you think you may be pregnant? This can be a puzzling time as it is. To add to the confusion, many pregnancy signs and symptoms can have causes unlinked to pregnancy.

You should know that the early signs of pregnancy tend to differ from one woman to the next. Of course, your best bet is to take a pregnancy test as soon as possible. But paying attention to early symptoms of pregnancy is also important. With that in mind, consider these 12 early signs of pregnancy.

Pregnancy Symptoms Week 1

The American Pregnancy Association (APA) conducted a survey on the first signs of pregnancy. Of the women polled, 29% reported a missed period and 25% reported nausea as the first symptoms of pregnancy. We’ll consider these two first and then focus on 10 additional indicators. 

  1. Missed Period. A missed period is often the very first sign a woman has that she may be pregnant. Many women begin seeking answers because they know they’re late for their next period. If you’ve had a missed period of about one week, you might consider this a possible indicator of pregnancy. However, this symptom in itself may not be accurate if you’ve had irregular menstrual cycles. 
  1. Nausea/Vomiting. Nausea is quite common in the first trimester and may or may not be accompanied by vomiting. This is known as morning sickness, though it can be experienced later in the day as well. The severity can differ from person to person. It isn’t totally clear what the cause is for morning sickness, but it may be due to hormonal changes. 

Other Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms

  1. Tender/Swollen Breasts. In the APA survey cited above, about 17% of women surveyed reported this as the first sign of pregnancy. However, this can occur between four and six weeks into pregnancy. You may experience tingling, aching, and swelling/enlargement of the breast tissue. You may also notice darkening of the areas surrounding the nipples. Once your body adjusts to your new hormonal changes, these feelings should subside. 
  2. Light Spotting/Bleeding/Vaginal Discharge. This is known as implantation bleeding and occurs after the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall. Implantation bleeding could be mistaken for a menstrual period, but there are some distinct differences. Some of the key differences include a smaller amount, shorter time, lighter color, and absence of clotting. 
  1. Cramping and pain. The cramps women experience when pregnant may seem similar to those during PMS. But just as we mentioned above with implantation bleeding, implantation cramps are different. These cramps would be present even after you’ve missed your period. Other pregnancy signs and symptoms include leg cramping and soreness in the lower back. 
  1. Headaches are so common that this one can’t be relied upon alone. In this case, you may also be experiencing lightheadedness or dizziness. These symptoms would be due to hormonal changes in your body. You should consider them in conjunction with other pregnancy symptoms you’re experiencing. 
  1. Sensitivity to Smell. Though there may be little scientific consensus on this one, it remains a commonly reported symptom. Sensitivity to smell is something that many women report particularly in the early stages of pregnancy. It may also be one of the causes of nausea during this time. 
  1. Change of Appetite. Does the Caesar salad you normally love seem a little off-putting? Or does your craving for potato chips and spicy salsa seem out of character? Change of appetite is common as an early sign of pregnancy. Often, the foods you normally desire won’t sound good to you at all. This may also be due to hormonal changes and along with changes in your senses. 
  1. Frequent Urination. Having to hop up and run to the bathroom in the middle of the night? Unless you’re hydrating like crazy, that could also be one of the pregnancy signs and symptoms to watch for. Also due to hormonal changes, it’s possible to experience this even before missing your period. 
  1. Constipation and Bloating. Speaking of hydration, that’s not a bad idea considering this symptom can be very uncomfortable! If you’ve had fewer than three bowel movements in a given week, you may be dealing with pregnancy constipation. Hormonal changes can be the culprit behind bloating and constipation.
  1. Mood Swings/Fatigue. Mood swings and fatigue are also attributable to hormonal changes. This is because your body is producing a hormone called progesterone. This hormone supports the pregnancy and is responsible for milk production in the breasts as well. As soon as one week after conception, you could experience fatigue due to your body working harder to pump additional blood to support this new life.
  1. Heartburn, or indigestion may affect more women in the second and third trimesters. However, it’s generally considered to stem from your increase in progesterone levels, so don’t rule it out. Especially if it’s not something you normally experience.

 

 

 

 

Am I Pregnant? Find Out for Sure

If you’ve experienced any of these pregnancy signs and symptoms and want further information, give us a call. You shouldn’t have to go through this time in your life alone. We’re here to help.

 

Disclaimer: This website and blog does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Content from this website and blog is not intended to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment. The information provided on this website is intended for general understanding only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice.

 

 

Introducing Adoptions from Portugal!

 

Nightlight Christian Adoptions is happy to announce we are licensed to work in Portugal and are currently accepting applications for families looking to adopt internationally! Most children available are over the age of 7 and there are sibling groups available. There are some children who are healthy but most children available  from Portugal have different level of medical needs. We receive files of children periodically that are waiting and these are sent to all agencies licensed to work in Portugal. We are able to match waiting families with these children or advocate for them on AdoptionBridge.org.

In order to adopt from Portugal, you will want to consider the following eligibility criteria:

  • You should be between the ages of 25 (30 if you are single) to 60 years old. There should be no more than 45 years age difference between the youngest parent and the child to be adopted.
  • Couples must be living together for 4 years and married for at least 2 years. Single women and men are allowed to adopt as well.

If you are interested in adopting from Portugal, the first step is to inquire with Nightlight to determine if you are eligible. If it is determined that the program is a good fit for you, you will follow these steps.

  1. Fill out an application with Nightlight Christian Adoptions.
  2. Complete an orientation with your program coordinator.
  3. Begin a home study for an international adoption. If you live in one of the 10 states where Nightlight is licensed, you will be required to use us for the home study process. If you live outside of our licensed area, we will let you know which agency is preferred for your home study.
  4. File your I-800A application with United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.
  5. Complete your dossier for Portugal.
  6. Once your dossier is registered with the central authority in Portugal, they will begin looking for an appropriate match. They have regular meetings where a committee looks at the families that are waiting and matches them with the children available. The wait time for a match will vary depending on your openness to age, gender, sibling groups, and special needs.
  7. After you have been matched, you will complete a referral review with Nightlight’s social services team to ensure you are prepared for the placement.
  8. You will then file your I-800 with United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.
  9. When you travel to Portugal, you must prepare to be in country for 6-8 weeks. There will be a 1-week bonding period prior before the child is transferred into your care. With the help of our attorney you will complete the guardianship process and will obtain the US visa for the child.
  10. After you arrive home, you will need to contact an attorney in your State to process a full and final adoption.
  11. Also you will be required to complete post-placement reports and submit them to Nightlight at one month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months after you arrive home. If you have not finalized your adoption in the 12 months after arriving home, you will be required to continue a post placement visit with your social worker to be submitted to Portugal every 3 months until finalization.

We would love to talk with you more about adoption from Portugal if this sounds like a program that would be right for you! Our Portugal program coordinator is Viktoriia Serediuk-Buz. You can contact her by email at viktoriia@nightlight.org, by phone at (317)875-0058, or you can fill out our Online Inquiry Form and indicate your interest in Portugal and she will contact you.

International Spotlight: Colombia

 

The right of children to be children

To think of childhood as a different stage in a person’s life is a fairly recent concept; in Colombia this term began to be used in the early twentieth century (Jaramillo, 233). Before that, children were considered small adults, who had to assume quite complex responsibilities for their age. However, despite the passage of time, the reality for thousands of children remains the same, and in many cases they find themselves in the sad and heartbreaking situation of living through experiences -violent and traumatic- for which they do not yet have the necessary tools or maturity to be able to deal with. These events will determine their lives, in many cases continuing eternal spirals of generational trauma and a present characterized by an emotional void.

The armed conflict that Colombia has lived through for more than fifty years has greatly affected the civilian population, with the poor being the most affected, among them those who have experienced the conflict directly. Thousands of peasants, indigenous communities and Afro-descendant population who have been dispossessed of their land and have been forced to flee their own territories. Many of them have settled in the country’s large cities, facing an urban of that is unkind and selfish.

As a result of decades of rural and urban violence, the family institution has been one of the most affected, with cases of domestic violence, sexual abuse, neglect, physical and psychological mistreatment, among others. In many cases, it is evident to see how this violence has been transmitted from generation to generation, with children being the most affected actors, and those who must be legally and emotionally protected from dangers or threats to their integrity.

 

The law, adoption, and children’s rights

The Code of Childhood and Adolescence in Colombia, the highest law that defends the rights of children, establishes that it is the obligation of the family to promote and guarantee their rights, as well as the responsibility that civil society and the State must assume to guarantee their development and protection. Faced with the impossibility of remaining in their biological family, the Colombian State has sought ways to ensure that millions of children and adolescents can exercise their right to live and grow up in a family that can provide them with the love, tools, and support they need to develop in a healthy environment that guarantees all the rights granted by national and international laws.

In this way, adoption has grown to become a very important step in the process of restoring the rights of minors, who through their adoptive family can have the possibility to heal their wounds, to believe in love again, to be heard, to have a dignified and full life, to go to school, to develop talents and skills, to play and practice sports, to grow up physically and mentally healthy: the right to be a child.

Adoption in Colombia has undergone countless changes, as any social process has presented flaws and problems, however, the institutions that compose it with the passage of time try to do the best with the few resources they have and always looking after the best interests of the children. Currently, international adoption is a fundamental mechanism to guarantee the rights of children, since not being able to be reunited with their family of origin or not being adopted by other Colombian families, the possibility of growing up in a healthy and free environment is limited. In this way, foreign families play an important role, becoming an agent of change, who through their support and accompaniment are committed to make their rights a reality.

With the help of the ICBF (Colombian Institute of Family Welfare), the IAPAS (Institutions Authorized by the State to carry out adoption processes), external organizations such as KidSave, Project 143, and Hague accredited adoption agencies, the construction of international adoptive families is a reality. Currently, various types of children are available for adoption, including children under ten years of age with special needs, children over ten years of age, and sibling groups of different ages. We facilitate adoptions with the families who contact us directly to wait for a child referral and we support the adoption of children who participate in the hosting program.

 

Nightlight in Colombia

Nightlight Christian Adoptions was legally established in Colombia in 2015, finalizing the first adoption in 2017. To date we have carried out 121 adoptions, supporting the construction of new families in different states across the U.S. and even working with American families living abroad.

Through the Waiting Child list, which is organized directly by the ICBF’s sub-direction of adoptions, we have found twenty-eight families for forty-eight children. Likewise, with the joint support of KidSave and its hosting abroad program, we have been able to ensure that forty-five children were guaranteed their right to have a family. The number of families that have decided to grow through adoption fills us with joy and pride and motivates all our team to continue working so that thousands of Colombian children can live in a loving and resilient family nucleus.

Our work is characterized by the fact that we work for the children, regardless of the case, and we advocate equally for all children regardless of the complexity of their life history or special needs. We support the children, even in cases where we do not have a family yet for them, through therapeutic processes such as EMDR and cultural and recreational activities.

During the process in Colombia, we closely guide the families, not only with the legal procedures that are required, but we also support them emotionally, where we listen to the children and the adoptive parents, we solve issues, we offer suggestions, we laugh and cry together. For this reason we invite all those who will soon travel to Colombia to carry out their integration process and legal paperwork to enjoy the process, to make the most of learning about the place where their children come from, to allow themselves to explore other identities, and to embrace the new culture that will incredibly transform their lives forever.

Any families that apply to adopt from Colombia in the month of December will receive a $500 grant toward their adoption fees.

 

References
Código de Infancia y la Adolescencia. [CIA]. Law 1098, 2006. November 8, 2006. (Colombia)
Jaramillo, C E. (2007) Los guerreros invisibles. El papel de los niños en los conflictos civiles del siglo XIX en Colombia. In P. Rodriguez, M E Mannarelli (Ed), Historia de la infancia en América Latina (pp.233-243). Universidad Externado de Colombia.
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, November 20, 1989, https://www.ohchr.org/en

Introducing: Nightlight’s Parent Coaching Program

 

Adoptive families face joys and challenges as their children transition into their home and grow. All parents need support and guidance as they move to new stages of development with their children and there are many resources out there for parents at large. Adoptive parents typically face unique challenges that complicate the typical trials that come up for children. Counseling meets the emotional and mental health needs for the child, parents, and family through a variety of methods but there are circumstances parents face that need more specific guidance. This is where coaching services can meet your needs. We see coaching services as a way to prevent struggles from spiraling into crisis.

 

What is provided through coaching?

Nightlight’s Coaching Program assigns a trained staff member to support a family over specific challenges or needs that they have. This program is best suited for families that see an area of struggle with their child escalating and feel unsure at how to address it. Your coach will focus on 1-2 specific areas of need, and discuss clear strategies for addressing that need.

The program will begin with an initial call to learn more about your family, assess the issue, and discuss a plan. You will be provided the plan in a document that allows space for you to journal between sessions. Depending on the plan and needs, you will set regular check-in calls over the course of 4-weeks with your coach to discuss how your situation is progressing and make alterations to the parenting strategy plan.

 

How do we define success in this program?

There are few issues that can be “fixed” or “solved” in a few weeks’ time. The path to healing for children with histories of trauma takes time to truly heal and change inside the child. Our goal is to provide you with a clear plan on how to parent and address the situation you are in with your child and for you to feel confident implementing that plan. Your confidence in parenting your child in the challenges is how we define success.

 

How much will this cost?

This service is provided by a trained staff member at Nightlight over a 4-week period of time that will include an estimated 4-8 coaching calls. This service is $500 for families that did not adopt through Nightlight and $400 for families that did adopt through Nightlight. If additional coaching calls are needed, they can be added for an hourly rate.

 

Contact Us

If you have questions or are ready to sign-up for a coach, please contact Heather Sloan, Director of Nightlight’s Post Adoption Connection Center, at heather@nightlight.org or 254-741-1633. She will conduct an initial intake call to assess if coaching services are right for your situation.

 

What do past clients have to say?

“We felt like our expectations were met. By the end of the program, we saw drastic improvements in the behavior of our [child] and also felt more confident and empowered to better parent our [child].”

“[Our coach] was a delight to work with and brought such valuable experience and knowledge into our coaching sessions. We loved how the program was structured so that we would meet with [our coach], agree upon a plan of action, try it out, and then meet again for debriefing. This gave us time to do trial and error and then be able to process our efforts. It also naturally created a sense of accountability between us. We were encouraged to implement the agreed upon strategies because we knew we would be having a coaching session soon. We only wish that we would have been in this program during the hardest months (months 3-5) of bringing our adopted [child] home. Counseling certainly has its place, but after going through this program, we are convinced that all adoptive parents need to be, at some point, in more of a “coaching” relationship to assist them in their parenting.”

Developing your Child’s Racial/Cultural Identity

 

For many families who adopt children who have different racial or cultural backgrounds, you may ask yourselves: How do I promote my child’s racial/cultural identity? Is this something we can even address?

Although discussing the difference of race and ethnicity in your families may seem complex at first, it is extremely important for every child. It has been found that transracial families who do not emphasize the importance of racial identity or do not attempt to connect the child to other figures in that racial group (i.e. mentors, role models), result in the child learning to devalue and ignore their unique racial identity. The child may even grow up to have negative feelings about their own race if they are not provided opportunities to engage with other individuals and groups of that race or culture. Alternatively, when transracial families openly discuss and promote the child’s unique identity, the child develops a positive concept about their connection to that race and their own self-image. Furthermore, we know that both transracially adopted children and children adopted into families of the same race have no differences in feelings of self-esteem when racial identity is discussed (McRoy, et. al, 1982). This implies that families who don’t have prior experience/participation in the cultural practices of different groups are still completely capable of promoting such opportunities for their children; this then promotes the child’s positive self-image and self-esteem.

Once we recognize why these discussions of identity are so important for transracial families, we can then highlight the variety of ways to explore this with your child. According to Ung, O’Connor, & Pillidge (2012), racial identity is influenced by four different pathways:

  • individual
  • family
  • community
  • societal

Within the family level of influence, parents should incorporate key values and traditions from the child’s background into parenting practices, celebrations and rituals, and diet. For example, parents may research and ask individuals from their community, support groups, or even online about important holidays, and practices on that holiday within the child’s culture; additionally, parents may select one night a week to make a traditional or common dish from the child’s cultural background. Incorporating these values and practices into your family dynamics and even making it regular part of your routine unconsciously sends the message to children that their culture, their background, their racial identity are validated and normalized. As a family, you allow these customs to be something that is easily maintained in the child’s life, which further supports their racial identity development. Parents should also consider their openness towards other races or cultures – not just their openness to the child’s own racial background. Parents model ways of viewing the world to their children, therefore children may learn to be more open or accepting towards other races and cultures if their parents are as well. If parents model judgement and prejudice against racial groups, transracially adopted children will also learn to be overly-critical, even sometimes to their own racial group. This again emphasizes the importance of openness among transracial adoptive families.

For any children who have a mixture of cultural or racial influences in their life, it is crucial to encourage their growth and understanding, while supporting them in both private, family-centered and public, community-based activities. At home, families can motivate children to openly discuss and understand their racial heritage, how it may be different from your own, and recognize that as a positive thing about your family. In promoting positive self-image and self-worth, ensure that you are setting positive expectations about your child’s behavior and that you are setting aside time each day where your child knows they can come to you. Both of these practices remind your child of their unique worth, how they positively add value to the family, and that they will always be supported and respected by Mom and Dad. Regarding school or community based practices to promote a child’s racial identity, families may explore integrated schools or neighborhoods for the child to feel that their racial identity is modeled in their environment. This immersion in racial groups on a routine basis is extremely positive for transracially adoptees to feel “seen” in their identity and not feel as an “outsider” where they live and learn. Additionally, families should seek out community role models, support groups, or peer groups that value and promote the child’s racial and cultural identity (Hud-Aleem & Countryman, 2008). Such role models and groups can be extremely helpful when families do not live in a very integrated or diverse community; having at least one or two people for the child to connect with about their shared race and/or culture can be significant for positive identity development. Beyond your connections with the child’s unique racial heritage, families should be open to discussing and building relationships with other cultures and culturally dissimilar peers. This brings us back to the concept of openness among families. Again, we emphasize that parents should model openness towards various races/cultures in order for children to form openness towards their own and other groups.

Despite knowing the importance of developing your child’s unique racial identity, it may still feel complicated and challenging. If so, remind yourselves that this new territory is something you will navigate together as a family. You’re not alone in navigating this or feeling nervous or intimidated about this. It may be best for transracial adoptive families to start slow. You can commit to incorporating one dish every couple weeks or going to one cultural event in the community each month (it can even be a simple book reading at the library!). No matter how you choose to approach the development and encouragement of your child’s racial identity, remind yourself of the importance. Your efforts to support and validate your child’s background and identity is something that will be invaluable as they grow into your family, and one day, their very own.

View these Nightlight blogs for more tips and considerations when raising your transracially adopted child:

Transracial Adoption Panel 1

Transracial Adoption Panel 2

Talking with Kids About Racism

 

References:
Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry, (Edgmont), 5(11). pp. 37-44.
McRoy, R. G., Zurcher, L.A., Lauderdale, M. L., Anderson, R.N. (1982). Self-esteem and racial identity in transracial and inracial adoptees. Social Work, 27(6). pp. 522–526. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/27.6.522
Ung, T., O’Connor, S. H., & Pillidge, R. (2012). The development of racial identity in transracially adopted people: An ecological approach. Adoption & Fostering, 36(3–4). pp. 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/030857591203600308